OUGD501 - End of Module Evaluation

What skills have you developed through
this module and how effectively do you think
you have applied them?


My skills in writing have increased dramatically over this year and I feel that the final essay I created was a big step up from last year. I feel that after engaging fully with the lecture program, I have gained tons of useful contextual information which is very important for my personal practice. Whilst engaging with the program, I found certain topics and areas of personal interest which led to further research and eventually creating and essay and publication in response to. I particularly enjoyed the Panopticism Lecture and this is where the main starting point came from looking into modern day Panopticism working across Social Media. 

I have gained other important skills across writing such as how to properly plan and structure larger pieces of writing as well as essay techniques such as triangulation. I feel that this helped me successfully structure and generate my final essay this year. I got to create my own essay title which was also useful, and will be extremely important when considering my COP3 dissertation topic. 

After tutor contact, I was able to see what I was successfully achieving in my essay and where I needed to go away and become stronger at. I needed to work on my introduction and conclusion elements of my essay, although I had more than sufficient amount of research, I then went away to work on how I can introduce and come to a personal conclusion, which was really useful. I am also now confident when harvard referencing within any piece of writing with carious different forms of sources. 

What approaches to methods of design production
have you developed and how have they informed
your design development process?


I really pushed myself when working editorially with the publication this year. Due to my very interesting topic of Social Media Addiction, which was derived from my Essay and mainly the Panopticism Lecture, it allowed me to be much more experimental with the layout and format. 

I had a strong vision that I wanted the publication to be fairly confusing, much like pop up windows on a computer. This was achieved by using a certain metal binding technique along with different sized pages and leaves which gives the publication a very unique look and feel. I was happy I achieved this in the end because I feel it is much more successful for the topic than a standard saddle stitched book would be. 

The topic also allowed me to be quite experimental visually throughout the publciation. I wanted the look of the publication to reflect that of things you find on screen, be that social media, or general computer interfaces. I used lots of visual research of computer interface designs, both vintage and modern day, and my design reflects this. I also used the design of Facebook as a strong visual reference, as I feel this is the best way to grab attention and connect with my target audience. 

What strengths can you identify in your work
and how have/will you capitalise
on these?


I have really enjoyed a lot of the lectures this year, much more than last. I feel that I am fully engaging with the theories raised and actually wanting to learn more about them as I now realise the importance of this when informing my personal practice, when I used to think it was a waste of time. I feel like, I have a much more well rounded concept and theory behind the work created, and this is from gaining a
good knowledge of my chosen topics, through engaging with lectures, seminars and researching more thoroughly. 

Conceptually I have grown this year in other modules as well as this one. I find myself bot just going with my first concept, but using various points of research and participation to gain a greater knowledge of the topic before coming up with a concept I feel will be strong enough, unique enough and most importantly work in a real life environment. Engaging more with theory and being more confident about my topics have also helped me gain a much better concept and this will continue to grow into COP3.

I am much stronger when writing longer pieces with planning and structuring. I feel I have a much greater knowledge of writing techniques and researching methods to help get the best possible results.

What weaknesses can you identify in your
work and how will you address
these in the future?


Identify five things that you will do differently
next time and what do you expect to
gain from doing these?


I plan to create a much better plan when it comes to my dissertation next year. Much more than any of the essays I have previously written. I feel that uses my knowledge in research techniques I don't have to waste my time researching things I don't need. I can make a plan that involves both secondary and primary sources of research and can achieve this over summer to a high level putting me in good stead for when it comes to writing it.

I will organise my time in general much better, especially across modules. I feel that I am pretty good at Time Management on the whole, but I felt at times this year that I put certain modules on the back burner, this one being one at a time and I shouldn't need to do this. Luckily, it didn't have any serious effects but I still feel that by structuring a better time management plan, this can be avoided.

I will make sure I will fully engage with all the lectures and not just the ones that are interesting to me. I will make the effort to go away and find out my own research in relation to each topic so I get a clearer idea of something that could be useful to help informing my personal practice.

I will also be more organised on my blog next year. I often find myself at times going back through blog posts and drafts inserting tags and losing important information along the way. I can't afford to do this next year and I don't really have the time. I will just be on point more when it comes to correct tagging and generating posts rather than hundreds of unfinished drafts. 

I still need to work on my presentation skills even though they have really come along this year. I need to be confident in my work in order to make other people confident in it too. I feel that I am constantly getting better at this, but again it's something that needs to be fully sorted when it comes to the third year.

OUGD505 - What Is Good - Perforated Pull Tab & Folding Research

perforated pull tabs

I did some basic research into perforated pull tabs because I knew this was something I really wanted to use for my invitations for the festival award ceremony. Unfortunately, I couldn't find any decent tutorials on how I could go about making it. But I figured it would be easy enough. A Case of just laser cutting the paper stock down the middle, or even cutting it by hand if possible.

I looked at some of the pattern designs used on perforated pull tabs to use as influence when testing to create my own....

The Pull Tabs often have jagged edges in order to keep the cut through the paper, whilst also creating edges for it to sit on. 

This is a more pristine pattern for a pull tab which could be achieved by creating a design before laser cutting into part of the invitation. 

This other example on food packaging shows how the edges work when pulled.

OUGD505 - What Is Good - Website Research

I looked into various websites which I felt could influence the direction I take mine in. Some are existing festivals or film related websites, others I felt were relevant because of colour...

Pink/Black in Web Design 

Snog is a frozen yoghurt company. They use these blocks of pink to highlight areas of text throughout their website. This instantly stands out and is also carried on throughout their entire branding. 

This is an app that I come across. The simplicity of using the three colour palette of pink, white and black really does it favours. 

Similarly this website is in the style of coding, quite cryptic but the colour scheme along with the chosen type really works well and keeps the viewers intrigued. 

This is a simple but effective use of the pink, black and white colour scheme. The separate boxes are easy to navigate for different features. 

Film Festival Websites 

Leeds International Film Festival has a clean design aesthetic to it and quite a plain colour scheme of black on white. I do like it however, It's easy to navigate and I love the logo. I also like the moving slideshow of films and the festival calendar aesthetic. 

The corner-house changes the background and logo colour for each section which is quite a neat little idea. The branding itself again it clean and works over a lot of different things which is good because it can be applied to art, film and music. 

AND Film Festival is another local film festical. I'm not keen on their website. Its quite hard to navigate even though the branding is good for films. 

OUGD501 - Essay Final - PDF & Text

Explain how Social Media could 
described as the Ultimate Panopticon
of the 21st century. 


‘There is no need for arms, physical violence, material constraints. Just a gaze. An inspecting gaze which each individual under its weight will end by interiorizing to the point that he is his own over seer, each individual thus exercising this surveillance over and against himself’ (Foucault, p. 156)

In 1791, philosopher Jeremy Bentham conceived the idea of a multifunctional building under the name of The Panopticon. The building was proposed to be ‘The perfect Institution’ (Foucault, 1977, p. 62) and one which could be used by a school, hospital, prison or any other institution. Using a prison as an example, the building, in one sense, would be a space of visibility, with lots of light and everything on display from one central tower. However, from the prisoners point of view, the building would be a space where the source of power is indefinable. From their cells, the prisoners would only be able to see the tower which stands in the centre of the institution. This, causing individuality and isolation, would stop the danger of prisoners conspiring which in turn causes psychological effects making them willing to accept these circumstances as normal. ‘No Thronging nor quarrellings, nor confederatings, nor plottings to escape; nor yet any whips or fetters to prevent it.’ (Bentham, 1787, p. 21)

In Discipline and Punish, Michel Foucault talks about the effects of the Panopticon in different stages. The first being docile bodies. ‘Let us take the ideal figure of the soldier as it was still seen in the early seventeenth century... He bore certain signs: the natural signs of his strength and his courage, the marks too, of his pride.’ (Foucault, 1977, p.150) By the start of eighteenth century, Foucault goes on to state how the docile body was manufactured. A docile body is not one which is weak, but one which is manipulated, shaped, trained and molded into the perfect specimen. One which obeys, responds, becomes skilful and increases its forces. Foucault talks about the second stage, ‘strict discipline’ being the art of correct training. ‘Instead of bending all its subjects into a single uniform mass, it separates, analyses, differentiates, carries its procedures of decomposition to the point of massacre and sufficient single units. Discipline ‘makes’ individuals; it is the specific technique of a power that regards individuals both as objects and of instruments of its exercise.’ (Foucault, 1977, p170).

‘Benthams Panopticon is the architectural figure of this composition. We know the principle on which it was based: at the periphery, an annular building; at the centre, a tower; this tower is pierced with wide windows that open onto the inner side of the ring; the peripheric building is divided into cells, each of which extends the whole width of the building; they have two windows, one on the inside, corresponding to the windows of the tower; the other, on the outside, allows light to cross the cell from one end to the other. All that is needed then, is to place a supervisor in a central tower, and to shut up in each cell, a madman, a patient, a condemned man, a worker or schoolboy.’ (Foucault, 1977, p.200)

The confinements and effect of the panopticon cause another stage in the effects; self regulation. There becomes a stage where a source of discipline can take a step backwards because it is replaced by the individuals’ own discipline. ‘He who is subjected to a field of visibility, and who knows it assumes responsibility for the constraints of power.; he makes them play spontaneously upon himself.; he inscribes in himself the power relation in which he simultaneously plays both roles.; he becomes the principal of his own subjection….It is perceptual victory that avoids any physical confrontation an which is always decided in advance.’ (Foucault, 1977, p.203).

The panopticon was the perfect platform for strict discipline, docile bodies and self regulation. Foucault talks about this being the ‘utopia of a perfect governed city.’ (Foucault, 1977, p.62) which describes the characteristics of the panopticon perfectly. This idea of ‘Utopia’ is the same as which the Nazi’s chose. When looking further into panoptisism, Foucault starts to demonstrate further how the panopticon itself has these effects of a person. ‘This architectural apparatus should be a machine for creating and sustaining a power relation independent of the person who excercises it.’ (Foucault, 1977, p.201). He talks about how Bentham understood that being constantly under the scrutiny of being observed has dramatic effects on the prisoner. ‘In view of this, Bentham laid down the principle that power should be visible and unverifiable.’ (Foucault, 1977, p.201).

The cages are ‘like so many stages, so many small theatres’ (Foucault, 1977, p.200) because each ‘actor’ is perfectly and constantly visible at all times. They stand alone. Unlike an unlit dungeon, the prisoner is illuminated with the light from the large windows, there is nowhere to hide.

When looking into the initial concepts and effects of the Panopticon, it is quite clear how some of these effects function in today's societies. Social Media is becoming more and more popular with the new generation, it is almost seen that your the odd one out if you don't have a Facebook account, or any other equivalent social media presence. ‘The major effect of the Panopticon: to induce in the intimate a state of conscious and permanent visibility that assures the automatic functioning of power. So to arrange things that surveillance is permanent in its effects, even if it is discontinuous in it's action.’ (Foucault, 1977, p. 65). Michel Foucault mainly explores “panopticism” in the context of a prison system, but also insists that it could be applied to various environments for different purposes. Although he wrote many years before the invention of the internet, his thoughts could quite easily be applied to Social Media. In fact, Social Media suits the ideologies alarmingly well. Foucault talks about the Panopticon surveillance being permanent in it's effects, even if it's discontinuous in it's action. Social Media is much like this in the fact that you upload private information about yourself along with images and videos for the whole world to see, meaning that your constantly aware that people could be viewing this 24/7. Both institutions internalize in the individual the conscious state that he is always being watched. In the piece of text, Discipline and Punish, Foucault not only explains Jeremy Bentham’s theory but also builds on it along with the structure of the panopticon; ‘a marvelous machine which, whatever use one may wish to put it to, produces homogeneous effects of power’. (Foucault, 1977, p. 202). In practice it affects a simple sense or awareness of being observed, which then consciously and also subconsciously creates a system of behavior and discipline. It is through this ‘affected consciousness’ that we self regulate.

Currently, there are over 955 million users on facebook, each containing information and photographs of themselves within a ‘profile’. This means that It is not only one of the biggest Institutes in the world, but also a massive part of the surveillant society and mentality which believes in trading surveillance for security in todays ever growing population. When we engage with Facebook on a daily basis, we are actively becoming the surveyor as we 'stalk' peoples profiles, whilst also being constantly observed in depth, by the hundreds of online 'friends'; Many of these ‘friends’ are not close to us in real life and many more we have never even met in person. It seems that privacy has become a thing of the past due to Social Media. If we consider the Panopticon's central tower as Facebook, we see that this can be accessed by anybody at any time. For instance, a Facebook Newsfeed gives us the access to be standing in the tower with complete visibility over everyone’s lives, whilst we are also simultaneously sitting in the cell, taking the position of the prisoner, as the next person takes the position of the guard. The dangerous but equally interesting aspect of this is how much information people will share, when they are completely unaware of who could be watching. Facebook, in a way, is like a stage in a theatre. It's, much like the Panopticon, in the fact that it's like a ‘Capillary functioning of power.’ (Foucault, 1977, p. 62). It allows you to broadcast your life, but a life that is handpicked by yourself. You critically choose what you want people to see and this in turn encourages us to be selective with the information we want to share on our profiles and also encourages us to fabricate situations or even act differently in order to achieve something that we want our surveyors to see.

As previously stated, Foucault refers to the panopticon as a solid structural enclosed building, but his writings also start to consider Panoptocism in the economy. These ideas can be applied even further into conceptual panopticism and through Social Media, virtual panopticism. Let's look at this from a different angle, for example larger institutions, such as the Government. By interacting with Social Media, we are leaving ‘a digital footprint that is more than likely constantly being dated and timed which also means it can easily be traced, tracked, saved and authenticated. This capability, or the threat of using this capability by those in authority, seems to be a characteristic of the Panopticon.’ (Dewey, 2007). Individualized, enclosed, and under surveillance, this seems like a return to the control of a plague stricken town at the end of the seventeenth century that Foucault began to examine. In a way, we are playing into the hands of the Institutions and creating a situation that puts them in complete control over our personal information. It is clear to see how the larger institutions have control over our everyday lives when not even focusing on Social Media. ‘Take for example the behaviour performed when you are sick. In the public sphere, it would be expected that you would cover coughs and sneezes with a tissue or elbow to stop germs from spreading into the air or onto surfaces. As a behaviour to stop others from getting sick, it would seem unnecessary to also apply it to the private sphere when home alone, yet the behaviour still occurs.’ (Marshall, 2012). This can also be applied to our behaviour around Social Media and public Situations. ‘Determined by "photo-opportunities" and conversations often surrounding a humorous post last night on Facebook or something similar.’ (Marshall, 2012) Particularly in the younger generations that are brought up on Facebook, It's becoming increasingly popular for us to live our real lives spending most of our time talking about our virtual ones.

On another level, we privately act as the surveyor. We track and watch people and look deep into their lives without them knowing. But we are aware that we might be being watched, and this in turn makes us bend the truth, lie or even stage situations, building a perfect life in order to feel wanted in social society. ‘He is seen but he does not see... axial visibility... lateral invisibility. And this invisibility is a guarantee of order.’ (Foucault, p.65) When comparing this to the forces of the Panopticon, the feeling of togetherness ‘is abolished and replaced by a collection of separated individuals.’ (Foucault, p.65) The prisoners are seen but without knowing who and when people might be keeping an eye on them, and this forces them to act on their best behavior constantly, which bares a striking resemblence to our online presence through social media websites. ‘Facebook stalking, therefore, is determined to be fueled by a healthy curiosity that feeds one’s desire to know about their friends and therefore perform surveillance activities. By virtue of the site’s design, we are all encouraged to be ‘stalkers’ in some way, and the act of looking is celebrated and even embraced as just another method of keeping tabs on those we consider to be our friends, both actual and virtual.’ (Marshall, 2010, p.84). The celebration of this curiosity could have more serious effects when the curiosity is placed into the hands of people who abuse the innocence. With more stories of internet grooming and pedophilia coming to light, it is something that maybe should be considered more, particularly by parents or guardians. But do we give as good as we get? Some people may argue that ‘users may assume that others are engaging in the same types of behaviors they report in themselves, namely searching for information about their offline connections’ (Lampe, Ellison & Steinfield, 2006, p. 169), and this is why we see that its okay to engage in these kind of activities. Others, like to use Social networking websites in order to keep track of friends they don't get to see that often. ‘Facebook members seem to be using Facebook as a surveillance tool for maintaining previous relationships, and as a ‘social search’ tool by which they investigate people they’ve met offline’ (Lampe, Ellison & Steinfield, 2006, p. 170). This is all well and good, but this more than definitely is dramatically affecting the way we interact with people in reality, after probing around for information about them online. It can create difficult situations because we tend to judge people through Facebook before we have actually met them in person, then when we do meet them in person, we can't see past their false internet persona, causing a possible 'real' friendship to never happen. There is a sense of safety within hiding behind an internet persona, and this tends to be stripped away when engaging in human to human contact, which again, makes us realize that an online identity is far from reality.

‘In a strange way, then, living in a panoptic world is both more and less free than living under a tyrant. More free, because everyone is on the same level. Less free, because at least under a tyrant you are free when you are outside of his gaze. Under panopticism, you are never outside of the gaze of authority because we have all been trained to watch each other.’ (Jackman, 2011). We seem to crave this scrutiny and this could relate to the fact that we like to scrutinize others. When we start to apply this to the real world outside of the internet, we can see how this could have dangerous effects on society. ‘The medias ability to move text and images through time and space opens up the possibility of what J.B. Thompson (1995) had described as 'intimacy at a distance’. (Darley, 2000, p. 201). This idea of 'intimacy at a distance' is the desire to create these 'virtual' communities with no real human to human contact. This reflects the disappearance of real life communities, which distances ourselves from real human relations to hide behind a fake online identity. We all here about kids these days spending too much time behind their computers and not enough time outside, playing, and this is where the serious social disorder effects could take place on shaping a new internet cultured world.

A counter-argument of the similarity between Social Media and the Panopticon is choice. Some may say that Social Media is all about choice. We don't have to have an account and if we do, we only have to allow our real life friends to see our information. We can also choose to have high security privacy settings and if we want, we don't have to have any information or photographs on there at all. ‘One can similarly imagine that if the prisoners in the Panopticon had the ability to present the guards with a representation of their behaviour, they wouldn’t need to regulate their actual behaviour’ (Allen, 2013). Allen argues that on the basis of this, Social Media isn't properly panoptic because users can be selective about what we show, how we perform, and even if we want to perform at all. There is also another side the argument which is personified by Allen. In the 21st century, Social Media is a part of everyday life. It is very much the norm to be involved in the 'Facebook movement' and ‘non-participation in social media becomes a kind of performance that is suspect in itself.’ (Allen, 2013)

The objection to being part of what is deemed as being normal, pushes the non-users into exile and therefore automatically into effects of the Panopticon inadvertently.

The power relation between Facebook and the user might not seem to be a form of discipline and the reason for this is because there is a strong underlying factor of coercion between the institution itself and the user. As there are increasing powers of surveillance forced upon us by the different institutes we fall under, Facebook is cleverly assisiting the schemes of the institutions, and in a way, has become an institution in it's own right; the ultimate panopticon some may say. When comparing facebook to the main points stated about the Panopticon, by Foucault, it isn’t hard to see the similarities. ‘The more numerous those anonymous and temporary observers are, the greater the risk for the inmate of being surprised and the greater his anxious awareness of being observed.’ (Foucault, 1977, p.202). Facebook, along with other forms of expanding, extreme surveillance is slowly creating ‘a utopia of a perfect governed city.’ (Foucault, 1977, p. 62) One in which, we are constantly trying to please each other, and subconsciously, the bigger institutions, giving us a false sense of security, in our false online lives. We are the docile bodies that Foucault talks about. We are under the strict surveillance of Social Media, whilst the people above can easily keep tabs on us, by letting us do their job, keeping tabs on each other. More importantly, we self-regulate. There doesn’t have to be a figure of power above us because we take on both roles without being asked or forced to. Some people may argue that we are our own enemies by being sucked into the whole social media movement and this is different to being locked up in a prison like structure, but the same principles are plain to see working in a completely different, modern day context.



Michel Foucault. (1977). Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison. London : Penguin. 62, 63, 65, 156, 170, 201.

Jeremy Bentham (2008). Panopticon; or The Inspection-House. Milton Keynes: Dodo Press. 21.

Andrew Darley (2000). Visual Digital Culture : Surface Play and Spectacle in New Media Genres. London: Routledge. 201.

Nicky Marshall. (2012). Facebook and Panopticism. Available: Last accessed 20th Jan 2012.

Kennedy Mary Catherine. (2010). Facebook and Panopticism: Healthy Curiosity or Stalking?. Available: Last accessed 19th Jan 2012. 85. 202.

Nicole B. Ellison, Charles Steinfield, Cliff Lampe. (2006). The Benefits of Facebook "Friends:" Social Capital and College Students' Use of Online Social Network Sites. Available: Last accessed 20th Jan 2012.

Clifford Jackman. (2011). Social Media and the Panopticon. Available: Last accessed 20th Jan 2012.

Matt Dewey (2007). Foucault : Panopticism. Available : Last Accessed 22nd Feb 2013.

Tom Allen. (2013). Panopticism and Social Media. Available: Last accessed 20th Jan, 2012.

(not quoted) 


Zygmunt Bauman (2004). Identity. 2nd ed. Cambridge: Polity Press.

Nick Stevenson (1995). Understanding Media Cultures. 2nd ed. London: SAGE Publications.




OUGD501 - COP - Final Publication Photoshoot

Selected Photographs ;

The cover consists of the blue folder with an additional white label which uses the title of the book in the style of a computer error code. This gives a brief introduction and insight to some topics that might be introduced in the publication. 

You can see how the metal acco binding clip works and holds the whole publication together including the folder. There is a 3cm margin on the left hand alignment of each page with a creased edge, for the interaction of the publication to be seamless. 

Clearer images show how pages work together and how the folded edge makes it easier to interact with the unique format. 

Full Image Set via Scribd ; 

OUGD501 - COP - Initial Printing / Binding

Today I managed to get the majority of my publication printed. It proved difficult because I was using three different sized pieces of paper (A5, A4 & A3). This meant that I couldn't just print it straight from publication as one booklet. I had to pretty much print each page separately...

For each page when designing, I created a 3 cm margin on the left hand side which I then had to score and fold which will make it easier to interact with when reading the publication. Here you can see how I did it with the A5 pages. 

To create the holes I had to measure up the size of each piece of paper. I started with the A5 and worked out how to get the holes precisely in the middle. I then just simply used a hole punch where my markings where and attached these in  

You can see here how the two Acco fasteners are applied to the a5 peieces of paper to bind them together. 

 I did the same with the larger sections of the publication. I measured out the markings by aligning all the pages with the bottom left of each page. This will be how the publication will sit together. 

You can see how i've scored all the pieces with a 3cm margin. This creates a crease which makes it all easier to interact with when trying to read. The A5 pages fit snugly on top of the A4 with overlap. 

Finally, The A3 was added in the same fashion to complete the booklet.

Final Layout 

This is roughly how the final publication will look. It's still missing some elements that have yet to be printed. There are various acetate sections and some other type elements that i've not had chance to print yet. This will be done over the next few days. For now, heres the publication so far, It's starting to take shape now...

this is how the front will appear. There will also be a large folder which will fit around the whole publication. This will act as a front cover but also look as though it's a case report, which is the prominent look that i was going for. 

Close Ups

OUGD501 - COP - Final Publication (Digital)

Final Publication 

This is a digital mock-up of how the publication will look when printed. The largest sections of stock are around A3 in size, with the other two main sizes stepping down to A4 and A5. It was difficult to create this as a publication because of these sizes. I couldn't just create it in Indesign as a normal book. I  instead created three separate documents and a vague grid system which I followed, so I could see the gutters, margins and crop points for each piece to sit in.

I will then split each page into separate documents front and back, and print these seperatly. I will be a much longer process than just printing a normal booklet through Indesign, but I feel that the finished result will be worth it.

I had to just digitally mock up how the pages will link with each other so I could see that I hadn't made any mistakes and also to give me and idea of how they will look when placed on top of each other inside the publication. Here is the finished result with the pages starting from the closed folder flipping through the book to the last page...

Front Cover


Page 2 & 3

Page 4 & 5

Page 6 & 7

Page 8 & 9 

Page 10 & 11

Page 12 & 13

Page 14 & 15

Page 16 & 17

Page 18 & 19

Page 20 & 21

Page 22 & 23

Page 24 & 25

Back Cover 

I am well on the way now with these. I can print them as a double sided page separately because of the bind I am using which makes it a little bit easier. I've printed around half of the publication so it shouldn't be too difficult to get the other half done. 

the use of different stocks really alters the appearance of the publication so this digital representation isn't really accurate. Once I have completed the prints I can compile to the book and then get some really nice studio photographs of it to give a better representation. 


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