COP3 Lecture - Academic Conventions


- An Expected System and Structure
- I am going to look at A, B, C & D



Richard Eckersly - Type Set -  Deconstructs the rulebook of Academic Writing. 3 Books in one working together and operating on the same page at the same time.

Left is book about Hagel's Philiosphy
Right - LiterallyAnalyisis
Middle - His own Personal Thoughts that sometimes link the two.

This is hardcore Philosophy but is doing something much more exciting.

This idea of Challenging conventions is what COP should be about.

Academic Conventions

- Ways of Writing
- Ways of Laying Out
- Tone our expected to right in
- Style you reference
- The ay in which you evidence
- Institutional Expectations on how your work should look and read
- Framework for you work to fit into (sometimes awkwardly if you have a personal project)
- Level Playing Field to be able to spot the content.

Rule you need to play by.

Quoting And Referencing 

- Showing to anyone who looks, where your argument is coming from on what it's based and someone can trace this back to the books you have used.

- its about honest, clarity and openness.

You need to be able to

- An Ability to apply theory to your field of design
- Analise and Evaluate Ideas based on Evidence
- Carry out a research project which is an ongoing process of learning.

Original Blooms / New Blooms

- Illustrates the difference between superficial engagement and deep embedded learning.

Surface Approach 

- Doing the Minimum
- Following the Brief Exactly.

Deep approach 

- Reflection
- Ongoing Investigation
- Going Beyond Whats Neccasery

How Can I Evidence Deep Learning?

- Follow certain academic standards
- The way in which you write, structure your writing, lay it out
- A Way which gives the understanding that your working in the bet possible way

- Formal Way of Writing - Certain Style and Tone
- Each Discipline has it's own style to follow
- Our Subject Areas will have specialist Vocab and Terminology
- You are exected to be able to use this in an institutuion which proves youve got got a good knowledge of you specific area.
- Learning the Jargon of your discipline and being able to use it comfotable.
- Don't just chuck impressive words in out of context - it's obvious.


- But these have to be based on experiments and logical analysis.

- Every Bit of Evidence, Analysised and Critqued
- Structure and Styles of Academic Writing cab be used to quickly show to the reader tht youve thought about a point in a lot of different ways - that your triangulating, that you


- Be Precise
- Don't Waffle
- Make a Point, Back it up with Evidence, Critique, Move on
- Don't use unnessacery words
- Don't use cautious language " I think that this is crap " just say "it's crap" then back it up
- Be Confident
- Short Sentences are better - To The Point
- Don't Repeat words again and again - Shows your stuck on one concept and lacking knowledge around the subject
- Analytical
- Sharp Writing


- Don't Use a Wafling tone like a story
- Big Statements need evidence
- Don't write how you speak
- Avoid Conversation Tones
- Avoid Slang, Abbreviations, Vague Teams, Contractions. eg. Dept. for Department.

- For Example - "Back in the Day..." DONT USE THIS.

- For Example - "This totally changed peoples lives" DONT USE THIS. Sounds more naturally dramatic but is less forceful academically. 

- First Person is unacceptable. It is too Subjective and Personal - even though this is the idea. Many tutors prefer impersonal language so it needs to be not in first person because they will think that you can't academically write any differently.

- Examples of First Person  - "We have Considered", "I suggest that", " I have Observed".

This should be ;

- Consideration has been given to
- It has been suggested that
- It has been observed


Preliminaries - Ackonweldgments, Contents, List of Illustrations

Introduction - The Abstract (short paragraph summarises purpose and point of argument), Statement of Problem, Methodological Approach

Main Body - Review of the literature, logically developed argument, chapters, results of investigation

Conclusion - Disscussions and Conclusion, Summary of Conclusion. Answer the Question your Asking, refering back to the question.

Extras - Bibliographies, Appendices


Intro Doesnt have to be long - outline reference to related literature, exaplins how arugument will develop. Paragraph for each chapter. Little sentance on how this all works together. Clear! Precise!

Throughout the Essay

A Mixture of Paraphrased Sections, Extended Quotes that are analysises in the next sentance. Small Quotes interwoven inside elements of text

Long Quote Explained  Critical Analaysis
Small Quotes - Good Communication
Paraphrasing - Broad Comprehension


Get each page working in a manner where there are various writers compared throughout.

IDEALLY 3 or 4 Harvard Reference WRITERS for every A4 double lined page of Text.

Harvard Referencing 

Author, (DATE), Title, Place, Publisher

Example ;

MILES, R (2013) Why Referencing, Leeds: LCA Publishing

Start compiling it and  doing it NOW!


'quote' (Surname, Date :  Page Number)
'quote' (Miles, 2013 : 7)

A Different Person within a book by somebody else ;

'quote' (Smith in Miles, 2013, 7)

List of illustrations for every picture you include and pictures need to be included with a reference that is the same as any other book.

COP3 _ Bernays Online Research

Sourced at :  -

This Article is one mans opinion on all the bad things bernays' did to America, as well as what this capitalised world is still doing to us. It also mentions how Goebbels took bernays' ideas to create Nazi Germany, which is interesting for my dissertation....


Imagine for a moment that 9/11 was a put-up job engineered for the sole purpose of cementing the current regime into power and frightening the bovine populace into surrendering even more of what little freedom they have left. Hypothetical situation now, just work with me a little. Imagine there never were any dissident crazed terrorists representing Osama or Saddam, but instead a highly disciplined though slightly whacked-out team of military fanatics, programmed somehow to think they were doing something valuable for some faction or other. A put-up job, from the inside.

So then imagine that all the violence and stress perpetrated on the collective American psyche since 9/11 about war, bioterrorism, and security has all been completely unnecessary. And that all the billions of dollars of extra security and wasted time in airports and borders was also totally unnecessary because there never were any terrorists, except us. And all the shrill media articles and “stories” that support the few underlying events have been unnecessary, their prime purpose being self promotion. Think how much our quality of life has suffered. What if all this stress has been totally unnecessary?

Many of our best people have come to precisely these conclusions. Once you got past the initial hurdle of being able to consider the unthinkable possibility that the present regime could be so obsessed with gaining political advantage that they would actually blow up 3000 of our own people, the rest falls into place. Over the top? Not such a stretch really when you compare the thousands that have been sacrificed to the whims of other blood-mad tyrants the world over, throughout all of recorded history. Exactly how are we any better?



But wait, we’re getting ahead of ourselves. Let’s back up a minute. In their book Trust Us We’re Experts, Stauber and Rampton pull together some compelling data describing the science of creating public opinion in America. They trace modern public influence back to the early part of the last century, highlighting the work of guys like Edward L. Bernays, the Father of Spin.

From his own amazing 1928 chronicle Propaganda, we learn how Edward L. Bernays took the ideas of his famous uncle Sigmund Freud himself, and applied them to the emerging science of mass persuasion. The only difference was that instead of using these principles to uncover hidden themes in the human unconscious, the way Freudian psychology does, Bernays studied these same ideas in order to learn how to mask agendas and to create illusions that deceive and misrepresent, for marketing purposes.


Edward L. Bernays dominated the PR industry until the 1940s, and was a significant force for another 40 years after that. (Tye) During that time, Bernays took on hundreds of diverse assignments to create a public perception about some idea or product.

A few examples: As a neophyte with the Committee on Public Information, one of Bernays’ first assignments was to help sell the First World War to the American public with the idea to “Make the World Safe for Democracy.” (Ewen) We’ve seen this phrase in every war and US military involvement since that time.

A few years later, Bernays set up a stunt to popularize the notion of women smoking cigarettes. In organizing the 1929 Easter Parade in New York City, Bernays showed himself as a force to be reckoned with. He organized the Torches of Liberty Brigade in which suffragettes marched in the parade smoking cigarettes as a mark of women’s liberation. After that one event, women would be able to feel secure about destroying their own lungs in public, the same way that men have always done. 

Bernays popularized the idea of bacon for breakfast. 

Not one to turn down a challenge, he set up the liaison between the tobacco industry and the American Medical Association that lasted for nearly 50 years. They proved to all and sundry that cigarettes were beneficial to health. Just look at ads in old issues of Life, Look, Time or Journal of the American Medical Association from the 40s and 50s in which doctors are recommending this or that brand of cigarettes as promoting healthful digestion, or whatever.

During the next several decades Bernays and his colleagues evolved the principles by which masses of people could be generally swayed through messages repeated over and over, hundreds of times per week.

Once the economic power of media became apparent, other countries of the world rushed to follow our lead. But Bernays remained the gold standard. He was the source to whom the new PR leaders across the world would always defer. Even Josef Goebbels, Hitler’s minister of propaganda, author of the Final Solution, was an avid student of Edward Bernays. Goebbels developed the popular rationale he would use to convince the Germans that in order to purify their race they had to kill 6 million of the impure. (Stauber) 

This is the reach of Bernays.


As he saw it, Bernays’ job was to reframe an issue; to create a desired image that would put a particular product or concept in a desirable light. He never saw himself as a master hoodwinker, but rather as a beneficent servant of humanity, providing a valuable service. Bernays described the public as a ‘herd that needed to be led.’ And this herdlike thinking makes people “susceptible to leadership.” Bernays never deviated from his fundamental axiom to “control the masses without their knowing it.” The best PR happens with the people unaware that they are being manipulated.

Stauber describes Bernays’ rationale like this:

“the scientific manipulation of public opinion was necessary to overcome chaos and conflict in a democratic society.” — Trust Us, p 42

These early mass persuaders postured themselves as performing a moral service for humanity in general. Democracy was too good for people; they needed to be told what to think, because they were incapable of rational thought by themselves. Here’s a paragraph from Bernays’ Propaganda:

“Those who manipulate the unseen mechanism of society constitute an invisible government which is the true ruling power of our country. We are governed, our minds molded, our tastes formed, our ideas suggested largely by men we have never heard of. This is a logical result of the way in which our democratic society is organized. Vast numbers of human beings must cooperate in this manner if they are to live together as a smoothly functioning society. In almost every act of our lives whether in the sphere of politics or business in our social conduct or our ethical thinking, we are dominated by the relatively small number of persons who understand the mental processes and social patterns of the masses. It is they who pull the wires that control the public mind.”
A tad different from Thomas Jefferson’s view on the subject:

“I know of no safe depository of the ultimate power of the society but the people themselves; and if we think them not enlightened enough to exercise that control with a wholesome discretion, the remedy is not take it from them, but to inform their discretion.”

Inform their discretion. Bernays believed that only a few possessed the necessary insight into the Big Picture to be entrusted with this sacred task. And luckily, he saw himself as one of that elect.


Bernays learned early on that the most effective way to create credibility for a product or an image was by “independent third-party” endorsement. For example, if General Motors were to come out and say that global warming is a hoax thought up by some liberal tree-huggers, people would suspect GM’s motives, since GM’s fortune is made by selling automobiles. If however some independent research institute with a very credible sounding name like the Global Climate Coalition comes out with a scientific report that says global warming is really a fiction, people begin to get confused and to have doubts about the original issue.

So that’s exactly what Bernays did.

With a policy inspired by genius, he set up “more institutes and foundations than Rockefeller and Carnegie combined.” (Stauber p 45) Quietly financed by the industries whose products were being evaluated, these “independent” research agencies would churn out “scientific” studies and press materials that could create any image their handlers wanted.

Such front groups are given high-sounding names like:

Temperature Research Foundation
International Food Information Council
Consumer Alert
The Advancement of Sound Science Coalition
Air Hygiene Foundation
Industrial Health Federation
International Food Information Council
Manhattan Institute
Center for Produce Quality
Tobacco Institute Research Council
Cato Institute
American Council on Science and Health
Global Climate Coalition
Alliance for Better Foods

Sound pretty legit, don’t they? All are bought and paid for.




As the science of mass control evolved, PR firms developed further guidelines for effective copy. Here are some of the gems:

- dehumanize the attacked party by labeling and name calling

- speak in glittering generalities using emotionally positive words

- when covering something up, don’t use plain English; stall for time; distract

- get endorsements from celebrities, churches, sports figures, street people – anyone who has no expertise in the *subject at hand

- the ‘plain folks’ ruse: us billionaires are just like you

- when minimizing outrage, don’t say anything memorable

- when minimizing outrage, point out the benefits of what just happened

- when minimizing outrage, avoid moral issues

This is the only life we get. Time is our total capital. Why waste it allowing our potential, our scope of awareness, our personality, our values to be shaped, crafted, and boxed up according to the whims of the mass panderers? There are many important issues that are crucial to our physical, mental, and spiritual well-being which require time and study. If it’s an issue where money is involved, objective data won’t be so easy to obtain. Remember, if everybody knows something, that image has been bought and paid for.

COP3 _ Century of the Self _Notes

(Century of Self Part 1)

The century of the self part 1(4).mp4 from Ayon on Vimeo.



over 100 years ago a new theory about human nature was put forward by sigmund freud. he had discovered he said, hidden sexual and agressive forces hidden deep inside the minds of all human beings. Forces that, if left uncontrolled. led individuals and societies to chaos and destruction.

This series is about how those in power have used freuds theories to try and control a crowd in the age of mass democracy.


Edward Bernays - freuds nephew  

His influence on the 20th century was as great as his uncles. he was the first person to take freuds ideas about humans to manipulate masses.

he showed american corporations how they make people want things they don't need by linking their mass produced goods to their unconscious hidden desires.


out of this would come a new political idea of how to control the masses - by satisfying people inner selfish desires to make them happy and docile.


Freuds ideas about how the human minds works are now an accepted part of society - as psychoanalysis.

i100 years ago frauds ideas were hated by society. frauds ideas were not only embarrassing, but the idea of analysis a persons feeling were a threate to their control. You were not allowed to show your feelings in those days.


Freud put that thought into question. to examine yourself, you would have to put a lot of other things into question - your society and everything that surrounds you. This wasnt a good thing at the time because the rulers of the empire wanted to remain in control.

Freud devised a method he called Physocanalysis. By analysing dreams he had discoverd powerful sexual and agressive forces which were the animalistic past. Feelings we repressed becasue they were too dangerous.


DR ERNEST JONES - Colleague of Freud

Freud devised a method of exploring a part of the mind which we nowadays call the unconscious. A part which is totally unknown to our conciousness. That there exsists a barrier in you.


IN 1914 - The Austrian-Hungarian Empire led Europe into war and as the horror mounted, Freud daw it as horrible evidence of the truth in his findings. He wrote we should of expected people to behave like this from our knowledge of physcoanalysis. Governments had unleashed the hidden forces in human beings an noone seemed to know how to stop them.

At this time, Edward Bernays was working as a press agent in america. His main client, was the world famous opera singer Caruzo who was touring the USA.

Bernays parents had moved to america 20 years before, but he had kept in touch with his uncle, joiing him for holidays in the alps. Bernays was about to return to europe for a different reason, America had announced it wsa anetering the war against Germany and Austira.



Bernays was emplyed to promote Americas war aims in the press. The president of the USA said America would fight ot bring demoncracy to the whole of enurope and Bernays proved skillful in promoting the idea home and abroad.


The propaganda surrounding wilson portrayed him as a man who would let the individual be free. They had made him a hero of the masses as as he watched the crowds of people, Bernays wondered if it would be possible to the same kind of mass manipulation but in peace time.

Bernays seen how effective Propaganda was in War for the Germans and for USA and decided it could also be used for Peace. 

"When I came back to the USA I decided that if you could use Propaganda for WAR, you can certainly use it for peace, and propagana got to be a bad word becasue of the Germans using it. What he did, was try and find some other words - Public Relation Council. " Edward Bernays

Bernays came back to America and it was now an Industral hub of millions of people clustered together. This was the first time he used the "Public Relation Council". he was determined to find a way to manage and alter the way the masses felt. To do this he turned to the writings of his unvle Sigmund.

Bernays read his uncles writings, and wondered if he might make money by manipulating these hidden desires foudn in people called the "unconcious".


"Eddy come up with an idea that you have to put out things that would play on peoples irrational emotions. That moved him away from all goverment parties who though that if you just hit people with factual infomation, they would look at that and say oh,of course. Eddy knew, that was not the way it would work. "



Bernays set out to experiment with the minds of the popular classes. his most dramatic experiment was to persuade women to smoke. At that time there was a tabbo against women smoking and one of his early clients asked Bernays to look into it. He says they have lost half their market due to the taboo.



A.A. Brill for a large fee told Bernays that cigarettes were a symbol for the penis, and male power. If he could find a way to challenge this male power, then women would smoke, because they would have their own penis'.

Bernays persuaded a group of young women at a large event to hide their ciagarettes, then when he asked then to get them out and dramatically light them up, using them as their "Torches of Freedom".

He knew it would be an outcry, and was ready with the phrase "Torches of Freedom" which means that everyone who believes in this equality. Liberty is holding up the torch. Emotion, Memory, Rational Phrase. All of this is together. The next day this was around the world! From that point forward, the sale of cigarette rised. he had made them socially acceptable with one action.

Bernays had created the idea that if women smoked, it would make them more powerful and independent, an idea that still persists today.



It made Bernays realise that it was possible to be able to make people act irrationally, if you were able to link certain products to their emotions and feelings.

The idea that smoking would make women freer was completely irrational. but it made them feel more independent. It meant that irrelevant objects could become powerful symbols of how you wanted to be seen by others.



PETER STRAUSS - Employee of Bernays (1948-52)

He saw that the way to sell a product was not to buy an automobole but that you will feel better about it, if you have this automobile. He originated that idea that they werent just purchasing something but they were engagin themselves emotionally and personally.


What Bernays was doing facinated americas corperations. They had come out of the war rich and powerful but had a worry that the system of mass production had flurished during the war and million of good was pouring off the production line. they was figthened of the danger of overporduction - when people had enough goods and would stop buying.

Up until then the majority of products still was sold to the masses on the basis of need. Shoes Stockings, even cars were promtoed in funtional terms - for their durability.The aim of the adverts was to show people the products pracgical vertues. nothing more.

Corporations had to change how american thought about products. 

16 : 30

What the corporations had to do, was transform how americans thought about products.  A top banker, Mazer,  at the time was clear about how this was necessary and he wrote...

"We must shift America from a needs to a Desire  Culture. People must be trained to desire, to want new things, even before the old had been entirely consumed. We must shape a new mentality in America. Mans Desires, must overshadow his needs."


Peter Solomon - Investment Banker - Lehmen Brothers

"Prior to that time, there was no consumer, there was american worker and american owners and they manufactured, they saves and ate what they had to and people shopped for what they needed. And while the very rich might have bought things they didn't need, most people did not. And Mazer visoned a break with that were you bought things you didn't actually need, but you wanted. as aposed to needed. "

A man at the centre of all this was Edward Bernays.

Stewart Ewan - Historian of Public Relations.

"Bernays really is  the guy in the USA more than anyone else who brings to the table, phycological theory as something that is ann essential part of how from the corporate side we appeal to the masses effectively and the whole sort of merchandising establishment and sales is ready for sigmund freud and what motivates the human mind. theres an openness for sigmund freuds techniques to be used to sell to the masses. "



Bernays Job was to produce a new type of customer...

Bernays began to create many of the techniques of mass consumer persuasion, that we now live wil. He  was employed by william worth to promte his new womens magazines and bernays glamourised them by placing articles and advertisements which featured that products from some of his other clients to famous film stars, liek clara bow, who was also his client.

He also began the practice of product placement within the movies and dressed the stars at the fils premiers with clothes and jewellery of firms he represented.

he was the first person to tell car companies that they could sell a car based on male sexuality.

he paid employees to issue reports that said products were good for you, then pretended they were independent studies.

He organised fashion shows in department shows and paid celebrities to repeat the new and essential messages.


Mrs Stillman - 1920s Celebrity Aviator.

I wonder why you all want to dress the same, with the same hats and the same coats. Im sure all of you are insteresting and have interesting things about you. But looking at you on the street, you all look so much the same. And thats why im talking to you about the phcology of dress. Try and express yourselves better in youyr dress. bring out certain things you think are hidden. "


In 1927. a journalist wrote " A change has come over our democracy, it is called consumption. The American citizens first importance to his country is now no longer that of a citizen, but that of consumerism.


The growing wave in consumerism helped in turn to create a stock market boom. and ywat agin Bernays was involved. promoting the idea of normal people should by shares and borrow money from banks he represented. yet again millions followed his advice.

Bernays fixes a plan for president to meet famous figures in order to gain reputation with masses 

In 1934, the president contacted Bernays. President coolidege was a quiet man and the press portrayed him as a dull humanless figure. Bernays solution was to do exaclty the same as he hsad done with products.He persuaded 34 famous filmstars to visit the whitehouse and for the first time, politics became involved with public relations.

New headline "Presdient Coolidge entertains actors at whitehouse" and "President nearly laughed".


In his old age, Freud become pessimistic. He wrote about the agressive things within groups of human beings. he wrote that he had underestimated human beings, they were far more dangerous than he'd originally thought.

He felt man was a sadistic and bad species.


In the late 1920's jouranlists was scared by Freuds writings about how people can act in groups and mobs and have the power destory things as big as governments and it was they belived happened in Russia.

To many this meant that one of the leading priciples of mass democracy was wrong. The blief that human beings could be trusted to make decisions on a rational bases.


After this scare, what was needed was a new system that would be used to control the unconsious of the masses.


In the 1920's Bernays argues he had written a series of books which was delivering this system of controlling the uncious, which is what lipman was calling for. he was creating a new way to mange the irrational thoughts of the masses. he called it the engineering of consent.



In 1928, a president came to power who agreed with Bernays . President hoover was the first politican who belived that consumerism had become the central motor to american life. After his election he told a group of advertisers ..

"You have taken over the job of desire and have trasnformed people into constantly moving happiness machines. Machines which have become the key, to economic progress.

What was begining to emerge in the 1920's was a new idea on how to run mass democracy. At it's heart was the consuming self, which not only made the ecomy work, but was happy and docile and so created a stable society.


Stewart Ewan.

In Bernays mind that was neccasery. That if you can keep stimulating the irrational self, then leadership can basically go on doing what it wants to do."


29th October 1929 - STOCK MARKET COLLAPSES - Bernays is FUCKED!

It was disasterous. Recession and Unemplyment meant people wasn't buying. Bernays' moment of power seemed to be over.

This hit europe too. In Germany and Austria, there were massive street fights over people from different parties.

Freud was suffering from cancer in his Jaw and wrote a book called civilisation and its discontents'

Powerful attack on the idea that civilisation was an expression of human progress. he argues instead it was created to control the dangerous animalistic instincts inside human beings.

FREUD SAYS INDIVIDUAL FREEDOM IS IMPOSSIBLE UNDER DEMOCRACY - can link to under nazi germany and also under corperations today. 

He said the idea of individual freedom, which was at the heart of democracy, was impossible. Humasn beings could never be allowed to truly expressed themselves because it was truly too dangerous. They must always be controlled and thus always keepen tabs on.

Man dosent want to be civilised. cicisation is discontetn but its what is needed for survival. Freud didn't belive in the idea of equality in man.

36 : 00


Freud was not alone in his pessimism. Politicians like Adolf Hitler, emerged from a growing despair in the 1920's about democracy.  The nazi's were convinced that democracy was dangerous because it  unleashed a selfish individualism, but didn't have the means to control it. 

Hitlers party, stood in election, promising that they would abandon democracy because of the chaos it led to. 

In March 1933, the National Socialists were elected ot power in Germany and they set out to create a society, that would control human beings in a different way. 

One of their first acts was to take control of business. The free market was too unstable as the crash in america had proved, so business was controled by the state, as was workers leisure time. 

One of it's mottos was Service, Not Self. 

The Nazi's did not see this as a return to an old form of autocratic control, it was a new alternative to democracy, in which the feeling and the desires of the masses, would still be central, but they would be channeld in such a way, was to bind the nation together. 

The chief expose of this was Josef Guerbles. Administer of Propaganda . 

Guerbils - Administrator of Propaganda in Nazi Germany is a fan of Benays writings 


"It may be a good thing, to hold power based on guns. It is far better, if you win the heart of a nation, and keep it's affection!"

Guerbils organised huge rallies with a function he said to forge the mind of a nation, into a unity of thinking, feeling and desire. One of his inspirations he told an American journalist, was the writings of Freuds Nephew, Bernays.


In his work on crowd phycology, Freud had described how the frightening irrationality inside human beings could emerge in such groups. The deep, what he called libidinal forces of desire are given up to the leader, while the aggressive instincts are unleashed on those outside the group. Freud wrote this as a warning, but the Nazis were deliberatly encoraging these forces becasue they belive that they could master and control them.


Vienna 2000 

Dr Leopold Lowenthal 

Freud was saying that masses was bound by labidinal forces. they love each other and delgate their ideas to the guy on top. labinal forces are forces of love. 


In America too, Democracy was under threat by the force of the angry mob. There was growing violence at the crash of the stock market as the angry population took out they frustration on the corporations who had seemed to have cause this disaster.

A new president was elected in 1932 who was also going to use the power of the state to control the free market. His aim was not to destroy democracy, but to strengthen it and to do this, he was going to develop a new way of dealing with the masses.

It was the start of what become known as the new deal.

He had a job to plan and run industrial projects for the good of the nation. HE was convinced that capitalism was no good anymore for a modern industrialised america. and attracted attention of the Nazis. 


Americas Movements Attract Nazis 

Guerbils. " I am very interested in social developments in America. I belive that President Roosevelt has chosen the right path. We are dealing with the greatest social problems ever known. Millions of unemployed must get their jobs back and this cannot be left to private initiative. It is the government that must tackle the problem. "

America was trying to sort out a nation like Nazis, but unlike Nazis belived Humans were rational and could be trusted to voice an opinion. 

But although Roosevelt, like the Nazis was trying to organise society in a different way, unlike the nazi's, he believed that human beings were rational and could be trusted to take an active part in government. He believed it was possible to explain his policies to ordinary americans and take into account, their opinions.

 To do this he was helped by the new ideas of an American social scientist called Geroge Gallop. They believed in asking strict factual questions and trusting the public to voice an opinion, and acted against Bernays' ideas. Scientific Polling established that people are rational and offfers a perfect rationality

Roosevelt was forging an alliance with the public and wanted to take control over big corporations and the money they make.

Big Businesses fight back, Led by Bernays'.


Faced with this, business fought back to regain dominance and a fight was led by Bernays under the Public Rekations.

A Campaign is launched specifically to gain an emotional attachment to the public with big business. Bernays' techniques used on a grand scale.

The Campaign set out dramatically to show america it was business not politicians that had forged modern america.

Bernays was an advisor to general motors, but he was no longer alone. A Massive Team led the campaign, They used billboards and Advertisements and got their message into Newspapers.

It became a bitter fight. in retaliation the government made films which warned the public of the manipulation of the press, by big business, and the centrail villain was the new figure of the Public Relations man (PR)


Bernays Powerful Imagination

Bernays was about to create a vision of the Utopia that free market capitalism would build in america if it was unleashed.

In 1939, New York hosted the worlds Fair, Edward Bernays was a central advisor. He insisted that the theme be the link between democracy and American business.

At the heart of the fair was a giant white done that Barnes named Democracity. and the central piece was a vast working model of americas future, constructed by the general motors corporation.

He wanted to keep Capitalism over Democracy or in a Democracy and did that by manipulating people in getting them to think you couldn't have a real democracy in anything but a capitalist society.

Which was capable of doing anything, of creating these wonderful highways of making moving pictures inside peoples house. Telephones that didn't need cords. sleek roadster.

It was consumerist, but at the same time, insured democracy and capitalism went together.


The worlds fair was a success and captured the heart of America. its vision was a new form of Democracy, in which business responded to peoples most desires in a way which politicians could never do.


But it was a form of democracy that depending on treating people not as active citizens, like roosevelt did, but as passive comsumers. This was the key to control in a mass democracy.


"Its not that the people are in charge, but the peoples desires are in charge. The people are not in charge, the people exercise no decision making power within this environment. so democracy is reduced from something that assumes an active citizenry to the public as passive consumers, driven by unconscious desires, and if in fact you can trigger those needs and desires, you can get what you want from them."




This struggle between the two views of human beings, whether they were rational or irrational was about to be changed by events in europe. events that would also change the fortunes of the freud family.

In march 1938, The Nazi took control over Austria, it was called Austwitch and as the crowd cheered on with mass adjuration in vienna, behind the scenes the Nazi's were whipping up and unleashing the hatred of the crowd against the enemies of the new greater germany.

Marcel Faust - Resident of Vienna (1930's)

"Austwich was an explosion of the terrible hatred of the enemies , or whatever they considered enemies, against Jews and anybody who apposed the Nazi's in Austria. They said you can do whatever you want, stealing, robbing, killing.

As all this happened in vienna, Freud decided he had to leave. His aim was to go to Britain, but he knew like most countries they was refusing entry to Jewish refugees. Jones, a leading Phychiatrist in Britain persuaded them to give Freud a work permit. May 1938 and some of his family set off for London.

Freud lived here while Britain prepared

COP3 - Research Categorised


An investigation into the Branding Techniques, Advertising Techniques and Business Structure of Nazi Germany compared to that of the McDonalds corporation.

Section 1 : Intro 

Iron Firsts (Book)  : Page 8

"Starting in the twentieth century, totalitarian states began using the same techniques as modern industries and corporations. Despots and businessmen alike strove to establish branding techniques, supported by visual images - logos and trademarks - that were used to trigger instantaneous recognition of their ideas and products. The goal was to ensure "brand loyalty", the ultimate objective of every branding strategy."

Nazi Germany use the same techniques as Corperations. Examples being Visual Images, Logos, Trademarls. BRAND LOYALTY

"Modern Totalitarian states market themselves both to reinforce their power over a captive populace obliged to consume the dominant ideology and to extend the reach of that ideology to the hold-outsthe not yet captive and the next generation. Corporate branding on the other hand, is ostensibly a benign practice intended to convince consumers to make informed choices."

This basically is saying that modern totalitarian states market themselves to reinforce their power but to also reach other people like the 'not yet captive' and more importantly, the 'next generation'. This means planting the idea early on in a young persons mind. This can easily be compared to children and Mcdonalds. 

"infiltrate the subconscious in order to trigger conformist behaviour (i.e. fealty to the brand)...capture the loyalty of the targeted and hopefully malleable demographic.

Malleable Demographic is the key word here. capturing the loyalty by brainwashing, much like Mcdonalds does.

"The design and marketing methods used to inculcate doctrine and guarantee consumption are fundamentally similar...public awareness and brand loyalty can be measures in sales - or votes."

This is basically saying that to 'inculcate doctrine' which means to stamp in a teaching uses very similar marketing techniques to 'guaranteeing consumption'. both is measured in sales or votes - corporations and political parties. 

Iron Fists (Book) : Page 11

"Explaining the visual language and branding strategies of these totalitarian regimes is essential to an understanding of how they developed, communicated and perpetuated their core ideologies through word, picture, and design; how they seduced their followers and, curiously, their enemies as well...These totalitarian states used branding strategies for diabolical purposes, and they did so with undeniable effectiveness which is what made them so dangerously beguiling."

GREAT INTRO QUOTE which explains how Nazi Germany used branding strategies for diabolical things and effectivly. Again this could be linked to McDonald's is seen as diabolical by a lot of people and is a major factor in the obesity rise in USA and world. 

State of Deception (Book) : Intro

"Propaganda is a truly terrible weapon in the hands of an expert." 

- Adolf Hitler 'mein kampf ' my struggle

Supersize Me (Documentary) : Intro

"Look after the customer, and the business will take care of itself"

Ray Kroz - McDonald's Founder

Quite an ironic quote, and amusing that the founder of McDonald's acts like an angel on the surface but there is some many hidden things underneath. 

Supersize Me (Documentry) : 43 mins

Ron English - Artistic Genious

"America has been Mcdonalized. It's been franchised out. It's like the old Flinstones cartoon where you had the same buildings go by in the background as they drove around. McDonalds, Walmart, Wimpy. McDonalds, Walmart, Wimpy....

The Mcdonaldization of Society : Page 8 

"As the (McDonalds) company chairman said "Our Goal : to totally dominate the quick service restaurant industry worldwide. I wan't McDonalds to be more than a leader. I Want McDonalds to dominate."

Very similar aspirations from the McDonalds chairman to what Hitler had. I want to be more than a leader. I want to dominate (world domination) 

The Mcdonaldization of Society : Page 1

"Ray Kroc (1902 - 1984), the genius behind the franchising of McDonalds restaurants, was a man with big ideas and grand ambitions. But even Kroc could not of anticipated the astounding impact of his creation. McDonald's is the basis of one of the most influential developments in contemporary society. It's reverberations extend far beyond its point of origin in the United States and in the fast-food business. It has influenced a wide range of undertakings, in deed the way of life, of a significant portion of the world. "

Good Intro on Maccies.

Page 18

The Mcdonaldization of Society : 

"The increase in the number of people crowding the planet, the accelaeration of technical change, the increasing pace of life --- all this and more make it impossible to go back to the world, if it ever exsisted, of home-cooked meals, traditional restaraunt dinners, high-quality foods, meals loaded with surprises, and restaraunts run by chefs free to express their creativity."

This great quote tells us that we cannot return to the previous world of food that is good for us. That whats interesting in this comparison on Mcdonalds and Nazi Germany. Nazi Germany is in the past, their model didn't last forever and people eventually come around to how bad this was and put a stop to it. The Mcdonalds model is so strong, it's never going to stop. It's going to get bigger and bigger and bigger until it owns everything in the world. It already has, in a way, achieved world domination. Something that Hitler would be jealous of.

Section 2 : The Conveyor Belt System


The Mcdonalisation of Society : Page 29

"The holocaust can also be seen as an example of modern social engineering in which the goal was a perfectly rational society. To the Nazi's, a perfect society was one free of Jews, as well as gypsies, gays, lesbians and the disabled. Hitler himself defined the Jews as a 'Virus', a disease that had to be eliminated from Nazi society"

"The holocaust had all the basic characteristics of rationalisation (and McDonaldization). It was an effective mechanism for the destruction of massive numbers of human beings. For example, early experiments shown that bullets were insufficient; The Nazis eventually settles on gas as the most efficient means of destroying people. 

"There was certainly little attention to the quality of life, or even the death, of the Jews as they marched inexorably to the gas chambers. 

The McDonaldization of Society : Page 30

"Like everything else in our modern society, the Holocaust was an accomplishments in every respect superior...It towers high above the past genocidal episodes."

"The Holocaust involved effort to make mass murder routine. The whole process had an assembly line quality about it. Trains snaked their way towards concentration camps, victims lined up and followed a series of steps. Once the process was complete, camp workers produced stacks of dead bodies for systematic disposal. Finally, the victims of the Holocaust were managed by a huge nonhuman technology. "

Making routine out of Mass Murder. Victims lined up like a Que. at  fast-food restaraunt. camp workers made a systematic disposal of dead bodies. etc. etc. 

"Needless to say, the Holocaust represented the ultimate irrationality of rationality. After all, what would be more dehumanising than murdering millions of people in such a mechanical way. "

Mechanical way

"Discussing the Holocaust in the context of McDonalsization may been extreme to some readers. Clearly, the fast-food restaurant cannot be discussed in the same breath as the Holocaust. There has been no more heinous crime in the history of humankind. Yet I have strong reasons for presenting the Holocaust as a precursor of McDonalization. First, the Holocaust was organised around the principles of formal rationality, relying extensively on the paradigm of that type of rationality --the bureacracy. Second, the Holocaust was also linked to the factory system, which you soon will discover was related to other precursors of McDonalization. Finally, the spread of formal rationality today, through the process of McDonaldization, supports Bauman's view that something like the Holocaust could happen again. "

(probably better being used in final conclusion in some way. Good Conclusion comparing Holocaust to McDonalds. Formal Rationality. the Holocaust system is a precursor of McDonalds and beyond. 

The McDonaldization of Society  : Page 41

"McDonald's and McDonalidization did not occur in a historical vacuum; they had important precursors that remain important to this day.  The assembly line, scientific management, and bureaucracy provided many of the basic principles on which fast-food restaurant chains were built. Furthermore, these precursors provided the environment the fast-food chains needed to thrive: large numbers of factory workers and bureaucrcrats driving great distances between work and the suburban dwellings in automobiles that also allowed them to visit shopping malls in their spare time. "

More on the important 'precursors' of the McDonalds system. 

McDonalds Controlling customers

The McDonaldization of Society :  
Page 116

"Whether they go into a fast-food restaurant or use the drive-through indown, customers enter a kind of conveyor system that moves them through the restaraunt in the manner desired by the managment. It is clearest in the case of the drive-through window (the energy for this conveyor comes from ones automobile), but it is also true for those who enter the restaraunt. Consumers know that they are supposed to line up, move to the counter, order the food. pay, carry the food to an available table, eat, gather up their debris, deposit it in the trash receptacle, and return to their cars. "

Good Quote on how we know how to follow the mechanical 'conveyor belt' system of McDonalds. 

Three mechanisms help control customers;

1. Customers recieve cues (for example, the precense of lots of trash receptacles, especially at the exits)  that indicate what is expected of them. 

2. A variety of structural constraints lead customers to behave in certain ways. For example, the drive-thorough window, as well as the written instructions on the menu marquee at the counter (and elsewhere) give customers few, if any, alternatives.

3. Customers have internalized taken-for-granted norms and follow them when they enter a fast-food restaraunt. 

The Mcdonaldisation of Society : Page 61

A final mechanism for increasing effiecincy in a McDonaldizing world is to put customers to work. Fast-food customers perform many more unpaid tasks with those who dine at full service restaraunts.:

"A few years ago, the fast food chain McDonalds came up with the slogan "we do it all for you" . In reality, at McDonalds, we do it all for them. We stand in line, take the food to the table, dispose of the waste, and stack our trays.As labor costs rise and technology develops, the consumer often does more and more of the work. "

Mechanism of Mcdonalds making consumers work

The Mcdonaldisation of Society

 Page 62

"The tendancy to put customers to work was underscored in 2003 by Steak n Shake.. TV advertisements describing fast-food restaraunts as "workaraunts". In contrast . Steak n Shake emphasises its use of china plates and the fact that the food is actually served by a waitress."


"The salad bar is a perfect example of putting the consumer to work . The customer "buys" an empty plate and then ambles over to the salad bar to load up an array of vegatables and other foods available that day. 

SALAD BAR. Perfect Example. 

"At Burger King and most other fast-food franchises, people must fill their own cups with ice and soft drinks, thereby, speniding a few moments as "soda jerks." 

Soda Jerks - self filled cups.

"McDonalds is testing self ordering kiosks in some restaraunts that allow customers to use touch screens to place their orders. They do what the counter people at McDonalds currently do -- find and touch the picture on the screen that matches the food being ordered."

Self ordering Screens

Page 65  
The Mcdonaldisation of Society

"In recent years, the fast-food restaurant has spearheaded the search for optimum efficiency....there is no question that greater efficiency brings advantages to all concerned, However it is important to remember that mechanisms designed to increase efficiency are generally put into place by organisations to further their own interests, and they are not always the same as those of consumers. 

Objects of our Affection : Page 129

The "Evangelical" Hamburger.

"McDonald's offers the hamburger without qualities for the man without qualities. It must be seen as more than a gaudy. vulgar oasis of tasteless ground meat, a fountain of sweet, syrupy malted milks in a big parking lots that caters to insolvent students, snack seekers, and hard-up hungers who grid it's bloody gristle through their choppers at fifteen cents a shot. No! McDonalds is not just a hamburger is America, or, rather, it is the supreme triumph of all that is insane in American life."

AMAZING QUOTE! about Mcdonalds and the shit it serves! 

"But we purchase our McDonald's hamburger at great cost. We cannot have it rare or well done, we cannot have it without "the works" for that would destroy the genius of the McDonalds hamburger. No! WE get the great national hamburger---prepared to hamburgize the masses---which forces us to sacrifice our individuality, our gastronomic identity, for a few pennies. Instead of a hamburger being prepared for our tastes, we are forces to adapt ourselves to it; we must become, so to speak, moulded to its taste. The triumph of McDonalism is the death of Individualism and the easting of a Mcdonalds hamburger is the next thing to a death wish.

A Mcdonalds hamburger reminds you how very mortal you are, how you too will be thrown away someday in the moral equivalent of a paper bag."

McDonalisation of Society : Page 12 

The Dimensions of McDonalisation (linked with Freudian theories from ' century of the self '

"Why has the McDonalds model proves so irresistible? Eating fast food at McDonalds has certainly become a 'sign' that among other things, one is in tune with contemporary lifestyle. There is also a kind of magic or enhancement that is associated with such food and settings. However, the  focus here is the four alluring dimensions that lie at the heart of the success of this model .... McDonalds has succeeded because it offers consumers, workers and managers efficiency, calculability, predictability and control."


Iron Fists : Page 11

Marching is the indispensable magic stroke performed in order to accustom the people to a mechanical, quasi-ritualistic activity until in becomes second nature. 

GREAT QUOTE ON MARCHING. This could be linked to queuing at Mcdonalds? The idea of queuing in Mcdonalds on a day-to-day basis or driving through the drive through and into the same exact routine. Even working there is very much a quasi-ritualistic activity and has become second nature to most of us. 

Iron Fists : Page 72

"Ultimately, Nazi's resorting to the most degrading branding technique imaginable; tattooing identification numbers onto inmates' bodies. These were brands in themost literal sense, which could never be erased."

By 1942, all Jews in camps were tattooed.. and in 1943 almost all of the camp poulationrecieved this kind of brand, with the esception of Germans, Ciminal Prisoners and Political Prisoners. 

"The operation was not very painful and lasted no more than a minute, but it was traumatic. It's symbolic meaning was clear to everyone; this is an indelible mark, you will never leave here.; this is the mark which slaves are branded and cattle sent to the slaughter and that is what you have become. You no longer have a name; this is your new name. The violence of the tattoo was gratuitous, and end in itself, pure offence."

Section 3 : Semiotics


objects of affection : Page 14


"Symbols are a complicated matter...symbols are never completely arbitrary, suggesting that there is usually some kind of bond between symbolic signifiers and what they signify."

"Semiotically speaking, symbols are things with important historical and cultural meanings, such as the cross for Christians, the Star of David for the Jews, and the American Flag for Americans. These symbols are ties to history and play important roles in every society." 

"From the point of view of any in particular individual, such symbols are largely given. He finds them already current in the community in which he is born and they remain, with some additions, subtractions, and partial alterations he may or may not have had a hand in, in circulation he dies."

"Geertz argues that we learn the meaning of symbols as we grow up in certain culture or subculture and that the symbols importance is enhanced by historical events and other happenings in that culture. Symbols help us make sense of things and play an important role in shaping our behaviour in many areas: religion (the cross), nationalism (the flag), status (the kind of car we drive). 

Objects of Affection : Page 23 / 24


"What we call culture can be seen as a collection of codes that tell us what to eat, how to dress, and how to relate to others... most of these codes are imprinted on children as they grow up in a family in a region of some country."

Good quote on how most of these semiotic codes are implanted on children at a young age as they grow up in society. This happens through Mcdonalds in our age and it's what happened also with Hitler Youth. 

"If the codes we learn when we are children so, in fact, shape our beaviour in profound ways, we can understand Freud's suggestion that "the child is the father of the man." He meant it psychologically, but we can also suggest it applies to our national cultures."

Bringing Freud's theory into it slightly on how children are effect behaviourally from early symbols and signs. 

Objects of Affection : Page 25

"Codes shape our behaviour as individuals and as members of groups,societies, nations and cultures. "

"The important thing to recognise about codes is that they pervade our lives.; you can think of them as culturally specific rule books that we have internalized that tell us how to make sense of the world and how to behave in all different situations that we find ourselves in. Codes affect everything from how we think about cheese, what we wear, what we find suitable for eating, how we raise children, what gestures we use and how we look at other people, to how we are buried after we die."

Another great quote on how these codes control our life and how we think about everything!

Objects of Affection : Page 75

"A brand name, term, sign, symbol, design, or combination of these elements that is intended to identify the goods and services of a seller and differentiate them from these competitors. A Brand name is he part of the brand that can be vocalised.... A brand mark is the part of the brand that can be recognised but is not utterable, such as a symbol, design or distinctive colouring or lettering....A trademark is a brand or part of the brand that is given legal protection;it protects the sellers exclusive rights to the use the brand name or brand mark."

Objects of Affection : Page 78

"From a semiotic perspective, brands are signifiers (often in the form of icons) companies use to establish their idenitites. Brands generate ideas and notions we have, generally provided by advertising by also by word of mouth, about the qualities of certain products and, by implication, the way they differ from competing products. "

"the opposite of a brand is a generic product or one that has become a commodity."

Objects of Affection : Page 79

The essence of branding lies in the claims a product have to being distinctive and having special attributes not found in competing products....Some products are integrated into films and television programs, a practice known as product placement. The products pay to be shown in these texts, so product placements can be considered a form of advertising."

Another great quote on PRODUCT PLACEMENT. This can be linked to the way Hitler used product placement in his own way, to make sure that branding visual scheme of the Nazi party was seen everywhere all across Germany. He didn't have to pay for it, but in a sense, it's the same sort of concept. 

"Non branded products son't advertise as a rule and are purchased on the basis of their functionality;they are, sociologically speaking, functional alternatives to branded products."

Objects of Affection : Page 80

"Brands are everywhere: in the air, on the high street, in the kitchen, on television and, maybe on your feet. But what kinds of things are they? .... The brand, a medium of exchange between company and consumer, has become one of the key cultural forces of our time and one of the most important vehicles of globalisation. "


Seducing the subconcious : PAGE 206

Go to Mcdonalds and many other fast food chains and you'll find yourself confronted with...

"A Blaze of Red and yellow and occasionally blue...These are exactly the same shades of bold primary colour that are found in Lego and Duplo and Mega Bloks and Fisher Price and the cast majority of baby toys. A baby or small child exposed to these colours would instinctively process them and feel like these restaurants are a friendly and safe environment, because they "look" exactly like toys their parents buy for them to encourage them to play with. By the time that child grows into an adult, they may well be conditioned to feel that McDonalds and Wendys and Burger King are associated with the colours of their childhood, and couldn't possibly be bad places. "

Great quote about the colours used in semiotics that appeal to children. 

Page 116 : Mcdonalisation of Society 


"Much the same effect is produced by the colours used in the decor. "Relaxation isn't the point. Getting the hell out of there is the point. The interior colours have been chosen carefully with this end in mind. From the scarlet and Yellow of the logo, to the maroon of the uniform;everything clashes. It's designed to stop people from feeling so comfortable, they might stay."

The colour used make us want to leave the restaurant. 

Mcdonalisation of society : Page 8 

"Furthermore, most of us have been bombarded by commercials extolling McDonalds virtues, commercials tailored for a variety of audiences and that change as the chain introduces new foods, new contests and new product tie-ins. These ever present commercials, and the fact that people cannot drive very far without having a McDonalds pop into view have embedded McDonalds deep into popular consciousness. "

Were bombarded with McDonalds adverts and buildings everywhere its automatically become embedded within or popular consciousness as well as our unconsciousness?

"A poll of school-age children showed that 96% of them could identify who Ronald McDonald, second only to Santa Claus on name recognition." 

Could link that with my own survey on children and McDonalds?

"As the (McDonalds) company chairman said "Our Goal : to totally dominate the quick service restaurant industry worldwide. I wan't McDonalds to be more than a leader. I Want McDonalds to dominate. "

Very similar aspirations from the McDonalds chairman to what Hitler had. I want to be more than a leader. I want to dominate (world domination) 

found here  :

Semiotics is the study of signs. Roland Barthes is the main theorist of semiotics.He saught to decipher the cultural meaning of visual signs, particularly those perpetuating dominant social values. Before Barthes a swiss theorist designed the components that make up any analysis of a sign, his name was Saussare. Saussare said in every analysis of a sign there is a signified and a signifier.The chapter really explores more of what Barthe called mythologies of the sign, for instance the symbol of the "yellow ribbon". I found it so interesting how it's meaning was deconstructed over time. it still begs the question how did that start? In my search for representative media for semiotics I found much of it dealing with simply the sign and the signifier, and signified, but I am really interested in Barthes idea of the mythology for signs. 

Something I considered comparable to the "yellow ribbon" are the world famous McDonalds "Golden Arches", because in it's simplest form it is really just a letter M, but when it became the golden arches the implications became so much more. It now has a mythology. I think in some ways just the word arches denotes it's like a "wonder of the world" the 8th, right up there with the statue of liberty and the Taj Mahal. it sounds crazy, but it is so engrained in us as actual arches that the word and image have that power. It's really a stroke of advertising genuis. Arches meaning always welcoming, and big enough to house the whole world. This may be going too far but there is also something spiritual, biblical, angelic in the figure of a golden arch, like walking under it will bring health, etc, and to think it's really just an M in the word McDonalds. i think the arches are half of the reason McDonalds is the biggest fast food chain in the world. This is a theory of my own, i guess, and I could not find anything specific linking the arches to semiotics, but just when I'd about given up hope I came across this, baby McFry. So what can we see in this image, what are the signs saying? I think a lot.

Nazi Germany 

Iron Fists : Page 14


the leader as designer

"He frequently said that art, not politics was his true calling...he promised that after winning the war Hitler would focus exclusively on matters of art."

"...he had a perverse vision, too, for in some of his studies he conceived and elaborate dystopia where the overall imagery, including uniforms, flags and symbols -- constituted a kind of sociopolitical art project"

"Culture and politics were intricately woven into a grand opera in which aesthetics integral to his extremist ideology played a leading role in an absurdist fantasy."

Comments on Hitlers as an artist and how he creating the symbols, uniforms and flags as some kind of sick art project.

Iron Fists :  Page 16


"When the Nazi's seized power in 1933, Hitler's entire conceptualisation was immediately put into practice...they commissioned extensive research on the physiological effects of posters...the book assessed English, American, French and German political poster design during World War I. It was destined to be used as a text book by German propagandists."

Nazi's researched into physcological effects of propaganda and poster design in order to control the masses. 

"Hitlers visual mission was his profound envy of the Bolshevik red flag and hammer-and-sickle emblems."

Hitler jelous of this.

"More than once in my youth, the phycollogical importance of such a symbol had become clearly evident to me,"

"A sea of red flags, red armlets and red flowers was in itself suffient to give that huge assembly of about 120,00 persons and outward appearence of strength."

 Hitler explained in his 1925 prison memoir 'Mein Kampf' (My Struggle). 

"One of the things he Nazi's purported to be offering the German population was the dream of social unification -- glorious Teutonic cohesion...and a common mission to "purify" the Ayran race, all symbolised by co-oridnated graphic signifiers that served as visual reinforcement of the common heritage"

Graphics used to brainwash.

Iront Fists : Page 17

The use of intials became integral to the Nazi Branding Scheme ... "It became the model for the Nazi's who reduced all party and government departments to intials and acronyms, and was eventually widely adopted by businesses."

Hitler "insisted that visual idenity and graphic design be given the highest priority. "Up till then movement had possessed no party badge and no party flag" He wrote in Mein Kampf. "The lack of these tokens was not only a disadvantage at the time, but would prove to be intolerable in the future."

Iron Fist : Page 18


" would be absolutely unthinkable that the future they should remain without some sort of token which would be a symbol of the movement and could be set against that of the [Communist] International." .... He immediately called for a well-definedidentity system to distinguish his party and it's members from the opposition --- as well as from the past. 

"In addition to the party's emblem and membership badge, Hitler designed it's stationery, rubber stamps... and the masthead of the party's newspaper."

"He convicingly sets down rationales for a systematic design program based entierly on signs and symbols.."             (again in hitlers book 'mein kampf'.)

"All those who busy themselves with the tastes of the public will recognise and appreciate the great importance of these apparently petty matters. In hundred of thousands of cases a really striking emblem may be the first cause of awakening interest in a movement" hitler wrote. 

This quote is really great because Hitler himself explains how important an emblem is in creating interest in a movement and this could be directly linked well with the golden arches. 

"Hitler...had an instinctive understanding in the emotive power of symbols... and applied this in designing the party's iconography"   writes Frederick Spots in Hitler and the Power of Aesthetics. 

Page 19
Iron Fists 

"In addition, he held that only certain colours were capable of attracting and focusing public attention, especially during a period of revolution. Using a semiotician's logic, he rejected pure white (too insignificant) or black (strong, but incapable of attracting attention alone, and any "weak" colour combinations. 

"Hitler decided upon a final form -- a red flag emblazoned with a white disk and a black swastika in the it's middle. He explained that the red expressed the social thought underlying the movement; white, the national thought; and the swastika signified the struggle for the victory of 'Ayran' makind."

Interesting comment on how Hitler come to choosing the colour combinations and design of the final flag.  This could also be easily linked to Mcdonalds as they use similar colour combinations to that of what the Nazi's did. 

Section 4 : Kids & Advertising 


Mcdonalisation of Society : Page 8

"A poll of school-age children showed that 96% of them could identify who Ronald McDonald, second only to Santa Claus on name recognition." 

Could link that with my own survey on children and McDonalds?

Seducing The Subconcious : PAGE 205

"Ronald Mcdonald is a pied piper drawing youngsters all over the world to food that is high in fat, sodum and calories. On the surface, Ronald is there to give chilren enjoyment in all sorts of way with toys, games and food. But ronald Mcdonald is dangerous, sending insidious messages to young people." Alfred David Klinger 

Alfred Klinger believes that Ronald McDonald should become "retired", but is this right?

Theres no question that children like clowns , and so I'd probably agree that the clown shouldn't be used to sell the burger. 

Plus, ronald McDonald has ow cleverly been repositioned to front up a charity providing 305 Ronald McDonald houses which provide overnight accomadation for parents visiting children in chronic care hospitals. 

Ronald McDonald is also used for good so who is right? who knows?  at least This debate is out in the open and people can make up their own minds to if they want thier kids to wast at mcdonalds or not. 

Seducing The Subconcious : PAGE 226

"If you start advertising to people when they are aged 6, by the time they are 26 they will have been exposed to 20 years of advertising. Twenty years of beautiful imagery, 20 years of technical breakthrough, 20 years of 'the ultimate driving machine.' Is it any wonder, then, that so many people in the world want to own a BMW?


Seducing The Subconscious : PAGE 225

A Force of Evil or Good?

"Most of you reading this book will be grown-ups. In one area, the dilemma is more important, and that is for children, Is it right that cereal manufacturers should be allowed to use advertising to create cartoon characters that appeal to children, when the products they are advertising contain significant quantities of added sugar?"

Its okay for us grown-ups because we are old enough to understand what might be happening, but kids are clueless and global corporations know this, and target it specifically. Is this fair?

Supersize Me : 17 mins 

John F. Banzhaff III  -  Law Professor, George Washington University

"Far more than all the others, McDonalds lives in young kids. They have the paygrounds. At 2, 3 or 4 their being lured in. Mcdonalds is very heavy on 'Birthday Parties' and they pioneered the 'Happy Meal' with the 'gotta-have-em' toys. And of course the clown - Ronald McDonald appeals to kids."

Supersize Me : 24 mins 

SMOKING & KIDS (Case Study)

John F. Banzhaff III  -  Law Professor, George Washington University

"There was this secret study by one of the tobacco companies that had the ominous title - something like "Brand imprinting for later actuation in life.". They would buy little toy cigarettes and start 'play smoking' them at 4, 5 and 6 (years old). They wouldn't even notice the packaging, but the theory was that it's buried in the brain. So, when they get to the age of smoking, without even realising it, they're going for that pack that they recognise because it has those nice feelings that they remember from being little kids. It's the same way here. They're satisfied, it's nice, they remember the warm feeling of playing, getting they're toy, being with mom and dad. It's gonna' carry through. "

Comparing a very interesting study about smoking and kids to the same advertising techniques that McDonalds use which makes the nice feelings of being a kid at Mcdonalds carry through into adult life. 

The Impact

Supersize Me : 29 mins

"If current trends continue 1 in 3 children born in 2000 will develop diabetes in their lifetime."

"The direct medical costs of diabetes have doubled in the last 5 years."

Advertisments & Kids 

Supersize Me : 44 mins 

"The average American child sees 10,000 food advertisements per year on TV. 95% of these are for sugared cereals, soft drinks, fast food or candy. It's not a fair fight with parents (who are trying to feed their kids the right things.)"

Margo Wooten, Centre of Science in Public Interest 

"By the time kids are able to speak, most of them can say McDonalds."

Mcdonalisation of Society : Page 10 

The attempt to hook children on fast food reached something of a peak in Illinois, where McDonalds operated a program called ' A for Cheese Burger '. Students who received As on their report cards received free cheeseburger, therefore linking success in school with rewards from McDonalds. 

Unbelievable stunt from McDonalds to lure kids in. 

The Sign of The Burger : Page 8

"Such ubiquity and conflicting perceptions make McDonald's a symbol for an age. The power of McDonalds to elicit dreams and fantasies from people around the world illustrates its compelling impact on the collective physhe. Numerous children I interviewed talked about wishing for an infinite supply of McDonald's hamburgers. Some wished they could someday own a McDonalds restaurant; many others wanted to raise hamburger trees on a fantasy farm they would someday run. 


Nazi Germany 

Iron Fists : Page 63

The Nazi's used a local paper, read by the masses called the 'People's Observer' to spread his anti-semitism and to bury it deep within the German Nation. 

"The journel's prominently typeset motto, Die Juden sind unser Ungluck! (The Jews are our misery!), flagrantly announced it's content full of fantastical stories about fabricated crimes by Jews, including ritual murder and savage rape...."

"...It's message was conveyed through hideous pornographic depictions and gross characatures of Jews. At it's height, Der Stumer printed over two million copies per week, and the paper was posted in public display cases in every German town and city." 

This can be vaguely linked to how McDonnell's tell you what they want you to know and not necessarily the truth or the facts. 

Anti-sematic children's books were also published and one in particular is notable called (The Poisonous Mushroom) ..

"(Trust no Fox on the green heath and no Jew upon its oath). Aimed at children, these books laid out preposterous lies designed to justify anti-sematic policy. 

"How to Tell a Jew: The Jewish nose is bent. It looks like a number 6."

Starting kids off to hates Jews at an early age, Mcdonalds also start kids off at an early age. 

Iron Fists : Page 8

"Modern Totalitarian states market themselves both to reinforce their power over a captive populace obliged to consume the dominant ideology and to extend the reach of that ideology to the hold-outsthe not yet captive and the next generation. Corporate branding on the other hand, is ostensibly a benign practice intended to convince consumers to make informed choices."

This basically is saying that modern totalitarian states market themselves to reinforce their power but to also reach other people like the 'not yet captive' and more importantly, the 'next generation'. This means planting the idea early on in a young persons mind. This can easily be compared to children and Mcdonalds. 

Hitler Youth

By Michael H. KATER, Michael H Kater

Page 1 

Hermann Graml, who was born in 1928, concluded that there were many aspects of his life as a member of the Hitler Youth that had appealed to him. Most important was that he, along with his friends, was "wooed and flattered beyond limits' by the powerful political system of the third reich, and thus he was proud to be a part of the largest ever youth organisation that is had created. He was attracted by the spiritual and national hymns they sang and by the cult-like activities that initiated young people into the movement, such as swearing an oath of fealty to Adolf Hiotler, the supreme leader.

"Unlike family, church and school, the HJ was not wighed down by tradition and taboos and seemed to offer an exciting opportunity for young people to be respected and responsible. "

Page 5 

...AS they got older, preconditioned, brainwashed children would swap air guns for machine guns and willingly be drafted to use them against hitlers foes. "

Section 5 : Creation of a character 


Seducing the Subconscious : PAGE 205

"Ronald Mcdonald is a pied piper drawing youngsters all over the world to food that is high in fat, sodum and calories. On the surface, Ronald is there to give chilren enjoyment in all sorts of way with toys, games and food. But ronald Mcdonald is dangerous, sending insidious messages to young people." Alfred David Klinger 

Alfred Klinger believes that Ronald McDonald should become "retired", but is this right?

Theres no question that children like clowns , and so I'd probably agree that the clown shouldn't be used to sell the burger. 

Plus, ronald McDonald has now cleverly been repositioned to front up a charity providing 305 Ronald McDonald houses which provide overnight accomadation for parents visiting children in chronic care hospitals. 

Ronald McDonald is also used for good so who is right? who knows?  at least This debate is out in the open and people can make up their own minds to if they want thier kids to wast at mcdonalds or not. 

17 mins : Supersize Me

"Far more than all the others, McDonalds lives in young kids. They have the paygrounds. At 2, 3 or 4 their being lured in. Mcdonalds is very heavy on 'Birthday Parties' and they pioneered the 'Happy Meal' with the 'gotta-have-em' toys. And of course the clown - Ronald McDonald appeals to kids."

In this experiment the kids don't know who famous figures are in history such as Jesus, George Bush etc, but they all know who Ronald McDonald is. They've seen him on "Television"

Page 8 : Mcdonalisation of Society 

"A poll of school-age children showed that 96% of them could identify who Ronald McDonald, second only to Santa Claus on name recognition." 

Could link that with my own survey on children and McDonalds?

Page 2 : Mcdonalisation of Society

"Martin Plimmer a British commentator, acrchy notes ' There are McDonalds everywhere. Theres one near you and theres one being built even nearer to you. Soon, if McDonalds goes on expanding at it's present rate, there might even be one in your house. You could find Ronald McDonalds boots under your bed, and maybe his red wig too."

After this comment I could insert findings from my own survey on how near to McDonalds people generally are??? Always watching, Always over you shoulder, much like the Nazis.

Nazi Germany

Iron Fist : Page 9

"The major component of any brand strategy is the logo---here, the swastika---but other mnemonic elements are also useful. Branding campaigns often rely on characters, based on real or imagined people or things, to catapult the brand into the mass conciousness. Many corporations invest heavily in the creation of these"trade characters":the common (and often comic) metaphoric or anthropomorphic personifications seen on television commercials and in print advertisements, like Mr. Clean, Joe Camel, and Ronald Mcdonald. by imbuing products with fanciful--indeed likeable--human characteristics, the trade character puts on a friendly face on an otherwise inanimate (or sometimes inhumane) product."

"These commercial examples are benign compared to the ways totalitarian regimes create mesemrising auras around the stern visages of their leaders , but the principal is the same."

Hitler "deliberatly emphasized certain personal characterisitcs" such as his moustache "with the aim of transforming their corporeal selves into icons. Then in every possible public venue, they made themselves omnipresent.

IMPORTANT QUOTES : comparing the use of characters such as 'Hitler' with commercial ones such as 'Ronald Mcdonald.  

Iron Fists ; Page 25

Hitler as Icon, Trademark and Mascot.

"Hitlers's image was designed to become the face of the Nazi State" 

Just like how Ronald Mcdonald was designed as the face of Mcdonalds. 

"Hitlers identity was carefully crafted and skilfully managed to represent both the omnipresent leader and the protector of the nation. He was at once the proverbial 'Big Brother' and the 'Saviour of the German Race'."

"Nobody but Hitler could be caller the furher (leader)"

"Hitlers visage became as ubiquitous as the swastika."

Iron Fists ; Page 26

"The illusion of proximity of the people was further emphasised by the fabrication of a sympathetic Hitler. Images of the fuhrer patting dogs, pinching the cheeks of young boys, and accepting flowers from young maidens were widely propagated. "the whole nation loves him, feels safe with him at the relm" the images said...."Our Hitler" as some posters stated."

His effectiveness as orator was not achieved though words alone...but through his hypnotic rapport with the audience --- the image he projected, the look he assumed. For every speech his opening movements were choreographed. 

Hitler portraying his innocence and choreographing his every move to perfection.

Section 6 : Religion


Mcdonalisation of society : Page 7

"The second indicator of McDonalds' global significance is the idea developed by Thomas Freidman that ' no two countries that both have McDonalds have ever fought a war since they each got McDonalds.' Friedman calls this the 'Golden Arches Theory of Conflict Prevention.' Another half-serious idea that implies that the path to world peace lies in the continued international expansion of McDonalds. Unfortunately, it was proves wrong by the NATO bombing of Yugoslavia in 1999, which had 16 McDonalds as of 2002. "

"To many people throughout the world, McDonalds has become a sacred institution. At an opening of a McDonalds in Moscow, a worker spoke of it 'as if it were the cathedral in chartres... a place to experience celestial joy'. Kowinski argues that indoor shopping malls, which almost always encompass fast-food restaraunts are the modern ' cathedrals of consumption' to which people go to practice their 'consumer religion'. "

Talking again about how McDonalds is like a temple of Religion. Link to Nazis?

Objects of Affection : Page 130

"I saw a small white building with huge arches and an electronic sign, full of rapidly rising numbers, indicating the number of people who had eaten McDonald's hamburgers. It struck me that the arches had a religious significance to them and the electronic sign indicated that people who ate a Mcdonald's hamburger were members of a community, or, even stronger, a congregation. And the way one ordered a hamburger seemed very structured or, in effect, a ritual. The fifteen cents could be constructed as an offering to the new religion."

GREAT QUOTE. referring Mcdonalds to a cult in some ways. 

Section 7 : Ease & Effeciency 


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