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COP3 Lecture - Academic Conventions


- An Expected System and Structure
- I am going to look at A, B, C & D



Richard Eckersly - Type Set -  Deconstructs the rulebook of Academic Writing. 3 Books in one working together and operating on the same page at the same time.

Left is book about Hagel's Philiosphy
Right - LiterallyAnalyisis
Middle - His own Personal Thoughts that sometimes link the two.

This is hardcore Philosophy but is doing something much more exciting.

This idea of Challenging conventions is what COP should be about.

Academic Conventions

- Ways of Writing
- Ways of Laying Out
- Tone our expected to right in
- Style you reference
- The ay in which you evidence
- Institutional Expectations on how your work should look and read
- Framework for you work to fit into (sometimes awkwardly if you have a personal project)
- Level Playing Field to be able to spot the content.

Rule you need to play by.

Quoting And Referencing 

- Showing to anyone who looks, where your argument is coming from on what it's based and someone can trace this back to the books you have used.

- its about honest, clarity and openness.

You need to be able to

- An Ability to apply theory to your field of design
- Analise and Evaluate Ideas based on Evidence
- Carry out a research project which is an ongoing process of learning.

Original Blooms / New Blooms

- Illustrates the difference between superficial engagement and deep embedded learning.

Surface Approach 

- Doing the Minimum
- Following the Brief Exactly.

Deep approach 

- Reflection
- Ongoing Investigation
- Going Beyond Whats Neccasery

How Can I Evidence Deep Learning?

- Follow certain academic standards
- The way in which you write, structure your writing, lay it out
- A Way which gives the understanding that your working in the bet possible way

- Formal Way of Writing - Certain Style and Tone
- Each Discipline has it's own style to follow
- Our Subject Areas will have specialist Vocab and Terminology
- You are exected to be able to use this in an institutuion which proves youve got got a good knowledge of you specific area.
- Learning the Jargon of your discipline and being able to use it comfotable.
- Don't just chuck impressive words in out of context - it's obvious.


- But these have to be based on experiments and logical analysis.

- Every Bit of Evidence, Analysised and Critqued
- Structure and Styles of Academic Writing cab be used to quickly show to the reader tht youve thought about a point in a lot of different ways - that your triangulating, that you


- Be Precise
- Don't Waffle
- Make a Point, Back it up with Evidence, Critique, Move on
- Don't use unnessacery words
- Don't use cautious language " I think that this is crap " just say "it's crap" then back it up
- Be Confident
- Short Sentences are better - To The Point
- Don't Repeat words again and again - Shows your stuck on one concept and lacking knowledge around the subject
- Analytical
- Sharp Writing


- Don't Use a Wafling tone like a story
- Big Statements need evidence
- Don't write how you speak
- Avoid Conversation Tones
- Avoid Slang, Abbreviations, Vague Teams, Contractions. eg. Dept. for Department.

- For Example - "Back in the Day..." DONT USE THIS.

- For Example - "This totally changed peoples lives" DONT USE THIS. Sounds more naturally dramatic but is less forceful academically. 

- First Person is unacceptable. It is too Subjective and Personal - even though this is the idea. Many tutors prefer impersonal language so it needs to be not in first person because they will think that you can't academically write any differently.

- Examples of First Person  - "We have Considered", "I suggest that", " I have Observed".

This should be ;

- Consideration has been given to
- It has been suggested that
- It has been observed


Preliminaries - Ackonweldgments, Contents, List of Illustrations

Introduction - The Abstract (short paragraph summarises purpose and point of argument), Statement of Problem, Methodological Approach

Main Body - Review of the literature, logically developed argument, chapters, results of investigation

Conclusion - Disscussions and Conclusion, Summary of Conclusion. Answer the Question your Asking, refering back to the question.

Extras - Bibliographies, Appendices


Intro Doesnt have to be long - outline reference to related literature, exaplins how arugument will develop. Paragraph for each chapter. Little sentance on how this all works together. Clear! Precise!

Throughout the Essay

A Mixture of Paraphrased Sections, Extended Quotes that are analysises in the next sentance. Small Quotes interwoven inside elements of text

Long Quote Explained  Critical Analaysis
Small Quotes - Good Communication
Paraphrasing - Broad Comprehension


Get each page working in a manner where there are various writers compared throughout.

IDEALLY 3 or 4 Harvard Reference WRITERS for every A4 double lined page of Text.

Harvard Referencing 

Author, (DATE), Title, Place, Publisher

Example ;

MILES, R (2013) Why Referencing, Leeds: LCA Publishing

Start compiling it and  doing it NOW!


'quote' (Surname, Date :  Page Number)
'quote' (Miles, 2013 : 7)

A Different Person within a book by somebody else ;

'quote' (Smith in Miles, 2013, 7)

List of illustrations for every picture you include and pictures need to be included with a reference that is the same as any other book.

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